Towards an Integrated Development of Control Applications for Multi-Functional Energy Storages

Abstract

Nowadays, the Energy Storage Systems (ESS) provides self-consumption Use Case (UCs), due to the reduction of energy costs. However, other UCs could also be covered by the ESS. Such as: frequency/voltage control, hosting capacity improvement, electric energy time shift, among others. In the near future, those functionalities will need to be offered by the ESS in conjunction with other devices, for instance PV inverters or Electric Vehicles. To achieve this, the design, prototype and realization of a Multi-functional Energy Storage System (MFESS) is analyzed. From this analysis, the following functional issues are pointed out: lack of flexibility in the MFESS and conflicts between use cases. Additionally, other non-functional issues are also addressed: decreasing manual effort and time consumption during the development of MFESS. Because of this, a solution to address the functional and non-functional issues from the point of view of the software architecture of MFESS is needed. The functional issues are the following: the conflict issue arises when certain use cases are activated simultaneously. For instance, the self-consumption UC requires using the battery. But in the meantime, the frequency-watt UC requires the battery to charge because of an over-frequency event. On the other hand, flexibility issue arises when migrations and/or reorganization of the MFESS are deployed, for instance, a new UC have to be integrated into the existent UCs . Those modifications could occur during the design stage or run-time operation. For this purpose, the Model-driven Engineering (MDE) combined with the smart grid and industrial standards are proposed as a potential solution. Today, the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) is widely used for designing, analyzing and understanding Smart Grid systems; demonstrating the control applications on basis of the automation pyramid and electric zones. Furthermore, this model provides a step-by-step methodology for control applications development, based on interoperability layers: business, function, information, communication and component. A similar model based on the aforementioned information layers and MDE techniques is carried out by [1]. This study aims to promptly answer changing demands in the smart grid control applications employing MDE skills. Because of the exposed statements, the analysis of MFESS is based on the SGAM model and MDE. The main research question to be answered is: what are the advantages of proposing a metamodel based on the SGAM for the development of control application from the point of view of flexibility in MFESS and conflicts between use cases?. To answer this is Key Parameters Indicators (KPIs) that measures the flexibility and conflicts in a system are defined. Those KPIs are evaluated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed meta-model.

[1] F. Andrén, M. Stifter, and T. Strasser, “Towards a Semantic Driven Framework for Smart Grid Applications: Model-Driven Development Using CIM, IEC 61850 and IEC 61499,” Informatik-Spektrum, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 58–68, Feb. 2013.